Yes, they can.
Google doesn’t show all links they know about in Search Console but rather a “relevant sample”.
Search Console shows a relevant sample of the known links.
That said, it’s likely that the links aren’t the most authoratative if Google has not decided to show them at all.
If our systems don’t even show them there, then they’re pretty irrelevant overall.
John added that even if Google knows about a lot of links from an individual site, they’re not going to show all of them.
If you have site-wide paid links from a site, we’re not going to list every URL on that site.